Acute prostatitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease that affects the tissues of the prostate gland, causing extensive swelling and the appearance of purulent foci. The disease can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the stage of its development. Therefore, an integrated approach is needed for its accurate diagnosis. The treatment of acute prostatitis is most often based on medication and physiotherapy techniques.
Alcoholism can cause acute prostatitis.
The disease most often develops in men over the age of 30. In most cases, the disease develops due to the negative impact of pathogenic microflora on the male body. Thus, acute prostatitis in men can be caused by the activity of the following microorganisms:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli;
Most of the above microorganisms are permanently in the human body until inflammation is observed. If such bacteria enter the tissues of the prostate gland, then the process of their active reproduction begins, as a result of which severe inflammation develops in the prostate.
The penetration of bacteria into the genitourinary system can occur during unprotected intercourse. That is why it is very important for people who do not have regular sexual partners to use condoms.
Inflammation can also be non-infectious in nature, developing for the following reasons:
- sedentary way of life;
- infrequent sexual intercourse;
- significant hypothermia;
- interruption of sexual intercourse;
- eating disorders;
- smoking and alcohol abuse.
The above factors create fertile ground for stagnation of prostate secretion. At the same time, stagnant blood processes are observed in the vessels located in the immediate vicinity of the organ.
With a significant accumulation of prostate secretion, a favorable environment is created for the reproduction of pathogenic microflora. As a result, the development of the inflammatory process develops. The latter is capable of causing a number of complications, such as:
- oncological process.
Important!Against the background of acute prostatitis, most men develop problems with potency and there is a risk of infertility.
Thus, in the risk group for the development of this disease are people who:
- no regular sex life;
- lack of physical activity;
- has bad habits.
Forms and stages
If you have any symptoms of prostate discomfort, you should go to the hospital immediately.
In modern medicine there are three main stages of this disease. Let's look at them in more detail:
- The first stage is called catarrhal.It is characterized by the occurrence of a primary inflammatory process with the appearance of edema of the glandular tissue, dilation of the acini. In this case, the prostate gland increases in size. If the disease is not treated, then the inflammation gradually spreads to the secretory ducts of the prostate glands connected to the back of the urethra. Inflammation of the prostate ducts causes their gradual narrowing and obstruction, as a result of which the process of secretion of prostate secretion is somewhat difficult. In the catarrhal stage of its development, the inflammatory process covers only the mucous layers.
- This is followed by the follicular stage of the disease.It is characterized by the further progression of the inflammatory process, in which the other tissues of the organ are gradually involved. As a result, an acute form of bacterial prostatitis develops. In the analysis of urine at this stage of the disease is present pus. However, despite the damage to a significant number of tissues, the follicular form of prostatitis responds well to treatment.
- The last stage is called the parenchymal.It is characterized by a destructive change in the tissues of the prostate gland. At the same time, the swelling gradually increases and the inflammatory process eventually covers the entire body. If the development of the disease reaches this stage, then the treatment process is very complex, requires radical measures. In the absence of timely and adequate treatment, chronic prostatitis can develop.
In the initial stage of development of this disease is usually distinguished subacute stage. It is characterized by low severity of symptoms, which is explained by the low activity of pathogens. The disease can be at this stage for a long time if the patient's body has good resistance. At the same time, it is very difficult to diagnose the disease in the subacute stage, which is why most patients do not receive timely treatment.
Each form of this disease is characterized by its own symptoms. Therefore, you should consider them separately.
This form of the disease is characterized by frequent desires to walk for a small need.
If the infection has reached the secretory ducts, then this stage of the disease develops. But despite the fact that the inflammatory process does not go beyond the mucosa, the prostate gland enlarges and swells. In this case, the urethra is squeezed.
The symptoms of acute prostatitis at this stage are mild:
- due to the compression of the canal, the patient may notice minor problems with urination;
- at night the urge to urinate becomes more frequent;
- possible increase in body temperature to 38 degrees;
- when the patient is in a sitting position, he may feel some heaviness in the perineum.
In some cases, the catarrhal form occurs without severe hyperthermia.
The symptoms of the disease may disappear on their own in a few weeks after development. And most patients in this case do not go to the doctor. However, this is met with the transition of the disease to a chronic state. Provided that the treatment of acute prostatitis is started in time, the disease subsides after 10 days.
If the catarrhal stage is not treated, then the disease develops further, affecting individual lobes of the organ. In this case, pronounced symptoms appear:
- acute pain observed during urination;
- the patient's body temperature is maintained at about 38 degrees;
- dull pain appears in the perineum, which radiates to the penis;
- the process of urination is complicated;
- the patient has difficulty defecating due to the presence of severe pain.
As this stage is characterized by purulent damage to the prostate, pus filaments may be observed in the patient's urine. Provided that the therapy is carried out in a timely manner, complete cure of the disease at this stage occurs in less than two weeks after the start of the procedures.
It is also called diffuse. As the inflammatory process covers the whole organ, the following symptoms appear:
- The pain in the perineum becomes almost unbearable. Periodically they move to the head of the penis. Some relief of pain in the supine position is possible when the patient presses both legs to the chest.
- Sensation of a foreign body in the rectum. There is significant pain during defecation. Constipation becomes more common and if the inflammatory process becomes a reactive form, then the secretion of mucus begins in the anus.
- Serious problems with urination occur. In this case, both partial and complete urinary retention is possible.
- Body temperature can reach 40 degrees. The patient suffers from chills.
A number of different tests will be needed to make a definitive diagnosis.
This disease is diagnosed by a specialist urologist, who conducts a comprehensive study, including the following types of procedures:
- physical examination;
- instrumental research;
- laboratory researches.
During the initial examination of the patient, the specialist palpates the gland. This should be done very carefully, avoiding massaging movements and strong pressure. Otherwise, you can deliver significant discomfort to the patient.
The main diagnostic method is the examination of the prostate gland, performed by inserting a probe into the rectum. This procedure allows specialists to obtain the following data:
- determine the pain response;
- identification of the main sources of destruction;
- confirm or deny signs of purulent tissue fusion;
- evaluates the shape of the organ and its symmetry, size and consistency.
As a rule, palpation of the prostate emphasizes the secret of this organ. Its analysis allows you to accurately determine the presence of an inflammatory process. The test checks the number of leukocytes, amyloid bodies and other components.
- bacterial culture of urine and urethral secretion with antibioticogram;
- PCR scraping studies;
- blood seeding for blood culture.
The nature and severity of dysuric disorders in the acute course of the disease is assessed using uroflowmetry.
Ultrasound of the prostate gland with moderate pain syndrome can be performed transrectally, and in case of severe pain - transabdominal. Echoscopically assess the shape, size of the gland, the presence of focal or diffuse changes, establish the stage of the acute inflammatory process.
When planning surgery for destructive forms of acute prostatitis, it is recommended to perform MRI of the pelvic area.
Treatment of disease
The main method of treating acute prostatitis is etiotropic therapy. It is based on the timely appointment of antimicrobial drugs to the patient, which will prevent the further development of pathogenic microflora in the pelvic organs. In addition to medication, the patient is prescribed folk remedies and physiotherapy procedures. A balanced diet plays an essential role in the treatment of acute prostatitis.
Treatment of acute prostatitis should include removal of the infection that caused the inflammation. In addition, the task of therapy is to eliminate stagnation and normalize blood circulation.
In most cases, outpatient treatment is used for patients with acute prostatitis. If the patient has a parenchymal form of the disease, then he is subject to hospitalization.
Treatment of acute infectious prostatitis includes mandatory antibiotics. In this case, the duration of treatment is determined by a specialist, just like the drugs used.
Antibiotics from different groups are active against different microorganisms. Therefore, professional treatment is performed only on the basis of an in-depth diagnosis. In this way, the doctor will be able to choose exactly the drug that will be effective against a particular pathogen. Usually the treatment is performed with the help of drugs from these groups:
The former are considered the most effective. For this reason, they are most often used in the treatment of acute prostatitis.
Although antibiotics are the basis of treatment, they are not the only drugs used for acute prostatitis. In particular, patients are prescribed antihistamines and gut-sparing bacteria.
It is very important to stimulate the immune system at all stages of the treatment of acute prostatitis. For this reason, patients are prescribed immunostimulatory drugs.
In addition to the above agents, interferons are used to treat acute prostatitis. It is possible to take such medicines both in the form of tablets and by intramuscular injection. The latter option is considered preferred.
Provided properly selected drug treatment of acute prostatitis, the severity of the symptoms of this disease is significantly reduced. The following physiotherapeutic techniques are used to consolidate the obtained results:
- Microwave and UHF therapy;
- rectal electrophoresis;
- prostate massage.
Many experts say that treating acute prostatitis with traditional medicine alone is impossible. In addition, such self-medication can significantly worsen the disease, leading to a number of complications. In this case, folk recipes can be used only as an adjunct to official medicines. In addition, many pharmaceutical drugs are produced from various plants.
As a rule, patients with acute prostatitis are prescribed various infusions and decoctions. They should be taken orally or used to make a healing solution when taking baths. The most effective in this case are the following plants:
- mother and stepmother;
- Oak bark;
The key to treating acute prostatitis is a balanced diet. The inclusion of certain products in the patient's weekly menu is based on the severity of his illness. Regardless of the stage of the disease, the following foods should be excluded from the diet for some time:
- smoked meats;
- fried foods;
- strong tea and coffee;
- alcoholic beverages;
- spicy and salty foods;
- fatty fish and meat.
Sports activities are very useful for the prevention of prostate diseases.
Prevention of acute prostatitis involves the timely elimination of the inflammatory process. To do this, it is necessary to treat bacterial, fungal and viral diseases in a timely manner. At the same time, any medical manipulations involving endourethral or endovesical examinations should be performed in accordance with appropriate aseptic rules.
Effective prevention of acute prostatitis is based on the following principles:
- Strengthening the immune system.
- Genital hygiene.
- Regular sex life.
- Systematic physical activity and walks in the fresh air.
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Normalize the diet.
Periodic prostate massage can be an excellent prevention of a number of urological diseases.
If you notice the first signs of prostatitis, you should not hesitate - you should visit a specialist as soon as possible. This will help to cure the disease faster and will prevent a number of negative consequences.